Tuesday, February 7, 2012

How is Transformational Leadership THeory used today?

What does a sampling of research reveal about the use and effectiveness of transformational leadership theory?

Contemporary Leadership models:
> The most researched theory on leadership since 1970 (The Leadership Quarterly, 1999)

> Proven to value people at every level of the organization and create a culture of collegiality among management and employees (The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 6, Issue 2, summer 1995)

> Increased job satisfaction, performance and leader-member and member–member exchange (The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 29, Number 2, April 2006)

> Transformational leadership principles favorably impacts emotional intelligence and interpersonal influence among leaders and followers demonstrating positive outcomes individually and organizationally (Journal of Organizational Behavior, Issue 7, November, 2005)

> Data shows the four “I”s of Transformational Leadership Theory provides an effective social “science” construct for effective leadership (R. A. Barker, “The Nature of Leadership,” The Journal of Human Relations, 2001)

Public Education:
> Transformational leadership is the most suitable and effective leadership model used by principals and school administrators for organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, teacher satisfaction, and student academic achievement (Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol. 33, Issue, 2003)

> Data reveals the effectiveness of Transformational Leadership Theory in the United Kingdom and calls for a wider dimension of its use (M. Bottery, School Leadership and Management, 2001).

> Transformational Leadership Theory was proven to be an effective means of creating culture in public schools (A. Harrison,” Leading from the chalk-face: An overview of school leadership,” Leadership Journal, 2005)

> A study based on 256 exemplary college presidents who turned their organizations around reveals a link to transformational leadership principles (American Association for American Junior Colleges, April, 1989)

> Expands the capacity to lead (Military Psychology, Vol. 16, Issue 4, 2004)

> Achieved the most positive impact on direct and indirect follower’s development and performance in military units (The Academy of Management Journal, 2002)

> The data concluded that police officers using transformational leadership principles have particular relational strengths that serve to elevate levels of commitment, work satisfaction, and motivation among Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) detachments. The data also points out that transformational leaders turn constraints into opportunities in the pursuit of their shared vision (Murphy, Steven A. & Drodge, Edward N. "The four I's of police leadership: A case study heuristic," International Journal of Police Science & Management, Spring 2004, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p1-15, 15p).

Business & Finance:
> a survey that investigated the contemporary practice of organizational development among the USA’s fastest growing firms (as identified by Fortune magazine) reveals the principles of transformational leadership theory changed “people’s lives, the milieu of the company, and the bottom-line” (Journal of Leadership and Organization, 1996)

> Transformational leadership training resulted in significant effects on bank employee’s ethical practice, organizational commitment and overall job performance (Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81(6), December, 1996.

> Transformational leadership theory fosters a moral community in companies and organizations (L. M. Sama, Journal of Business Ethics, 2008)

> Research demonstrates that transformational leadership theory is most important during the birth, growth and revitalization ofan organization (H. Erkutlu, Journal of Management Development, 2008)

> Research results demonstrated that project managers who used adopted a transformational leadership style had a positive impact on actual project performance, that emotional intelligence of employees and actual project performance (W. Leban, Journal of Leadership and Organization Development, 2004)

> Evidence supports a positive relationship between the use of transformational leadership in nursing and increased patient outcomes (Journal of Nursing Management, 2007)

> Lower turnover rate, greater work satisfaction, and greater teachable components were observed in nursing departments that taught and used transformational principles (The Journal of Nursing Administration, Vol. 22, 1992)

> Conclusion of data reveals that Transformational Leadership Theory positively impacts the situational leadership framework of nurses and mid wives in the development and support of individuals and teams to meet the complex healthcare needs of patients within the clinical setting. Implications for nurse management: stronger situational leadership and support for employees and patients. (Soloman. Annette, ”Director of nursing and midwifery leadership: informed through the lens of critical social science.” Journal of Nursing Management, May2010, Vol. 18 Issue 4).

> Studies conducted by the National Healthcare System of Scotland revealed that using transformational leadership principles among medical personnel has improved the healthcare system of Scotland. Conclusion: reforming how healthcare is delivered depends on effective leadership at all levels. Developing the leaders of today and tomorrow will be crucial in delivering the ambitious goals that have been set for the health service (NHS Scotland Journal, May, 2004).

> Article links transformational leadership theory to nurses’ extra role performance and self-efficacy, (Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Chambel, Maria J.; Martínez, Isabel M. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Oct., 2011)

International & Missions:
> A major study reveals supportive evidence for the universality of transformational leadership in several continents. Data was gathered in business, education,military, government and the independent sector supports the effectiveness of transformational leadership when used cross culturally.

> This article reports on three studies that used a combination of methods to measure the wide-scale use and effectiveness of transformational leadership theory in India (Singh, Niti; Krishnan, Venkat R. "Transformational Leadership in India." International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Aug2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2)

> This website describes the need and priority for leadership development by the Scotland government, outlines proposals and the necessary framework required to implement the theory nationwide http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/05/19338/36768#4

Clergy & Church:
> Data reveals that applying the principles of transformational leadership theory lead to successful pastoral leadership (Journal of Ministry, Marketing and Management, Vol. 4, Issue 2, 1999)

> Research data links leaders who successfully motivate followers in religious and non-profit organizations with transformational leadership theory (L.W. Fry, The Leadership Quarterly, 2003)

> Data reveals that in churches where parents were taught transformational leadership children demonstrated greater respect for the authority of both parents and church over those who were not exposed to the theory (B.M. Bass, European Journal of Work and Organization, 1999)

> Research links clergy using transformational leadership theory to higher church attendance and spiritual growth among congregants in the church membership (B. M. Bass, Organizational Dynamics, 1990)

> Research demonstrates that transformational leadership theory is effective than other theories studied in starting, growing revitalizing an organization (H. Erkutlu, Journal of Management Development, 2008)

> Studies show that United Methodist pastors using transformational leadership theory had greater parishioner satisfaction and performance reviews, longer tenure, and measurable growth in attendance over pastors who used transactional principles in leadership (M. Onnen, “The Relationship of Clergy Leadership Characteristics to
Growing or Declining Churches,” UMI Dissertation Information Service, 1989)

Women in leadership:
> Data reveals that transformational leadership theory is an effective means of training and promoting women in leadership (Journal of Social Psychology, March, 2008)

> Data reveals multiple connecting points between transformational leadership theory and scripture (M. Ayers - Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 2006)

Parenting and Family Issues:
> Data reveals the positive effects parents have on children's health and wellness when Transformational Leadership Theory is applied in parenting. (Morton, Katie L.; Barling, Julian; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Zumbo,Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R. “The Application of Transformational Leadership Theory to Parenting: Questionnaire Development and Implications for Adolescent Self- Regulatory Efficacy and Life Satisfaction,” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Oct. 2011, Vol. 33 Issue 5,).

> Research conducted by the Faculty of Education at the University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Israel links good parenting to transformational leadership theory (The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 14, Issue 1, February 2003)

> Data reveals that children whose parents were trained in transformational leadership demonstrated greater respectfor the authority over those who were not exposed to the theory (B. M. Bass, European Journal of Work and Organizational, 1999)

> The author links knowing and applying transformational leadership theory with marital success in homes where both spouses are fulltime professionals. (Dean. Donna, “Wither Thou Goest: The Trailing Spouse or Commuter Marriage Dilemma” Women’s Experiences in Leadership in K-16 Science Education Communities,2009)

> Study links TLT with employee’s ability to balance marriage and family life with work. (Halpern, Diane, and Murphy, Susan, “From work-family balance to work-family interaction: changing the metaphor,” Psychology Press, 2005)


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